Computer Applications Secondary Level: Unit-1: The Generations of PCs And Their Elements, The Types of Computer

Hindrances of Computers

Following are sure hindrances of PCs.
  • A PC is a machine that has no knowledge to play out any errand.
  • Every guidance must be given to the PC.
  • A PC can’t take any choice all alone.
  • PCs have no sentiments or feelings.

4. The Types of Computer

There are various sorts of PC having various highlights. PCs vary in view of their information handling capacities. They are ordered by reason, information taking care of and usefulness. As per reason, PCs are either universally useful or explicit reason.
a. Particular Purpose Computers
b. Universally Useful Computers

a. Particular Purpose Computers

A specific reason PC is planned exclusively to meet the necessities of a specific errand or application. The guidelines expected to play out a specific undertaking are forever put away into the inside memory, so it can play out the given errand on a solitary order. It subsequently doesn’t gangs superfluous choices and is more affordable.

b. Universally Useful Computers

An Universally Purpose PCs are intended to address the issues of various applications. In these PCs, the guidelines expected to play out a specific errand are wired forever into the inner memory. At the point when one occupation is finished, directions for one more occupation can be stacked into the interior memory for handling. This, a broadly useful machine can be utilized to get ready cover bills, oversee inventories, print deals report, etc.
In light of the working standards, PCs can be arranged into the accompanying kinds :

a. Simple Computers
b. Computerized Computers
c. Cross Breed Computers

a. Simple Computers

A simple PC is a type of PC that utilizes the ceaselessly variable parts of actual peculiarities, for example, electrical, mechanical, or water powered amounts to display issue being settled. Interestingly, computerized PCs address shifting amounts emblematically, as their mathematical qualities change.

b. Computerized Computers

Work basically by counting. All amounts are communicated as discrete or numbers. Computerized PCs are valuable for assessing number juggling articulations and controls of information, (for example, readiness of bills, records, arrangement of synchronous conditions and so on.)

C. Cross Breed Computers

Cross breed Computers will be PCs that show elements of simple PCs and advanced PCs. The computerized part ordinarily fills in as the regulator and gives coherent tasks, while the simple part regularly fills in as a solver of differential conditions.

Grouping of advanced Computer in light of size and Capability

In view of size and capacity, PCs are extensively characterized into

a. Microcomputers (Personal Computer

A microcomputer is the littlest universally useful handling framework. Microcomputer can be arranged into 2 sorts:

1. Desktops
2. Portables
The thing that matters is portables can be utilized while voyaging though work areas PCs can’t be hauled around.
The different convenient PCs are: –
1) Laptop
2) Notebooks
3) Palmtop (hand held)
4) Wearable PCs

b. Minicomputer

A minicomputer is a medium-sized PC. That is more impressive than a microcomputer. These PCs are normally intended to serve different clients all the while (Parallel Processing). They are more costly than microcomputers.
Models : Digital Alpha, Sun Ultra.

c. Centralized server PCs

PCs with enormous capacity limits and extremely rapid of handling (contrasted with smaller than expected or microcomputers) are known as centralized server PCs. They support countless terminals for concurrent use by various clients like ATM exchanges. They are likewise utilized as focal host PCs in circulated information handling framework.

Models: – IBM 370, S/390.

d. Supercomputer

Supercomputers which have very huge capacity limit and registering speeds are ordinarily quicker than different PCs. A supercomputer is estimated as far as many millions guidelines each second (mips), an activity is comprised of various directions. The supercomputer is principally utilized for huge scope mathematical issues in logical and designing disciplines like climate examination.

Models: – IBM Deep Blue

1.6. The Generations of PCs And Their Elements

PC age is the arrangement of PCs into various gatherings as per their assembling date, other equipment and programming innovation utilized inside those PCs. There are five PC ages realized till date. Every age has been examined exhaustively alongside their time span and qualities. In the accompanying table, a surmised date against every age has been referenced, which are ordinarily acknowledged.
Following are the really five ages of PCs.

PC – First Generation:

The time of original was from 1945 to 1955. The PCs of original utilized vacuum tubes as the essential parts for memory and hardware for CPU (Central Processing Unit). These cylinders, similar to electric bulbs, created a great deal of intensity and the establishments used to much of the time combine. Accordingly, they were pricey and just huge associations had the option to bear the cost of it. The PCs in this age utilized machine code as the programming language. 

The primary highlights of the original are Vacuum tube innovation, Unreliable, Supported machine language just, Very exorbitant, Generated a ton of intensity, Slow info and result gadgets, Huge size, Need of AC, Non-versatile, Consumed a great deal of power, and so forth. A few PCs of this age were ENIAC, EDVAC, UNIVAC, IBM-701, IBM-650, and so on.

PC – Second Generation

The time of second era was from 1956 to 1964. In this age, semiconductors were utilized that were less expensive, consumed less power, more minimal in size, more solid and quicker than the original machines made of vacuum tubes. In this age, attractive centers were utilized as the essential memory and attractive tape and attractive circles as optional stockpiling gadgets. 

In this age, low level computing construct and undeniable level programming dialects like FORTRAN, COBOL were utilized. The PCs utilized bunch handling and multiprogramming working framework. 

The principal highlights of second era are; utilization of semiconductors, solid in contrast with original PCs, more modest size when contrasted with original PCs, produced less intensity when contrasted with original PCs, Consumed less power when contrasted with original PCs, quicker than original PCs, still expensive, AC required, upheld machine and low level computing constructs, and so on. 

A few PCs of this age were IBM 1620, IBM 7094, CDC 1604, CDC 3600, UNIVAC 1108 and so forth.

PC Third Generation

The time of third era was from 1965 to 1971. The PCs of third era utilized Integrated Circuits (ICs) instead of semiconductors. A solitary IC has numerous semiconductors, resistors, and capacitors alongside the related hardware. The IC was developed by Jack Kilby. This improvement made PCs more modest in size, solid, and proficient. In this age remote handling, time-sharing, it were accustomed to multiprogramming working framework. 

Significant level dialects (FORTRAN, COBOL, PASCAL, BASIC, and so on) were utilized during this age. The principal elements of third era are IC utilized, More dependable in contrast with past two ages, more modest size, produced less intensity, quicker, lesser upkeep, upheld significant level language and so on. A few PCs of this age were IBM-360 series, Honeywell-6000 series, PDP (Personal Data Processor), IBM-370/168, TDC-316 and so forth.

PC – Fourth Generation

The time of fourth era was from 1972 to 1980. PCs of fourth era utilized Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits. VLSI circuits on a solitary chip made it conceivable to have microcomputers of fourth era. Fourth era PCs turned out to be all the more remarkable, reduced, dependable, and reasonable. Subsequently, it led to Personal Computer (PC) upheaval. In this age, time sharing, constant organizations, appropriated working framework were utilized. 

Every one of the great level dialects like C, C++, DBASE and so forth, were utilized in this age. The principal elements of fourth era are VLSI innovation utilized, extremely modest, convenient and solid, utilization of PCs, tiny size, pipeline handling, no AC required, idea of web was presented, extraordinary advancements in the fields of organizations, PCs opened up, and so on. A few PCs of this age were DEC 10, STAR 1000, PDP 11, CRAY-1 (Super Computer), CRAY-X-MP (Super Computer) and so forth.

PC – Fifth Generation

The time of fifth era is from 1980 onwards. In the fifth era, VLSI innovation became ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) bringing about the development of microchip chips having ten million electronic parts. This age PC depends on equal handling equipment and AI (Artificial Intelligence) programming. Man-made intelligence is an arising branch in software engineering, which deciphers the means and strategy for making PCs think like people. 

Every one of the great level dialects like C and C++, Java, .NET and so on, are utilized in this age. Man-made intelligence incorporates Robotics, brain organizations, game playing, improvement of master frameworks to pursue choices, all things considered, circumstances, regular language getting it and age and so on. 

The principal highlights of fifth era are ULSI innovation, improvement of genuine man-made reasoning, improvement of normal language handling, headway in equal handling, progression in superconductor innovation, more easy to understand connects with sight and sound elements, accessibility of extremely strong and minimized PCs at less expensive rates and so forth. Some PC sorts of this age are Desktop, Laptop, Notebook, UltraBook, Chrome Book and so forth.

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